Atomic layer deposition (ALD) offers exciting possibilities for controlling the structure and composition of surfaces on the atomic scale in heterogeneous catalysts and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrodes. However, while ALD procedures and equipment are well developed for applications involving ﬂat surfaces, the conditions required for ALD in porous materials with a large surface area need to be very different. The materials (e.g., rare earths and other functional oxides) that are of interest for catalytic applications will also be different. For ﬂat surfaces, rapid cycling, enabled by high carrier-gas ﬂow rates, is necessary in order to rapidly grow thicker ﬁlms. By contrast, ALD ﬁlms in porous materials rarely need to be more than 1 nm thick. The elimination of diffusion gradients, efﬁcient use of precursors, and ligand removal with less reactive precursors are the major factors that need to be controlled. In this review, criteria will be outlined for the successful use of ALD in porous materials. Examples of opportunities for using ALD to modify heterogeneous catalysts and SOFC electrodes will be given.
Published in Inorganics, Volume 6, Issue 1, 2013, pages 1-20.
© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Onn, T. M., Küngas, R., Fornasiero, P., Huang, K., & Gorte, R. J. (2018). Atomic Layer Deposition on Porous Materials: Problems with Conventional Approaches to Catalyst and Fuel Cell Electrode Preparation. Inorganics, 6(1), 34. doi:10.3390/inorganics6010034