E/M impedance modeling and experimentation for the piezoelectric wafer active sensor

Document Type


Subject Area(s)

Physics, Mechanical, Engineering


This study aimed to develop theoretical models to accurately predict the in-plane (longitudinal) and out-of-plane (thickness-wise) modes of the electromechanical impedance spectroscopy (EMIS) of a piezoelectric wafer active sensor (PWAS). Two main electrical assumptions are applied for both in-plane and thickness mode PWAS-EMIS in one-dimensional simplified analytical models. These assumptions are 1) constant electrical field assumption and 2) constant electrical displacement assumption. The analytical models with two assumptions are compared with one another to understand the prediction accuracy of the models in different vibration modes. Coupled field finite element analysis (CF-FEA) is also conducted with 2D PWAS model under stress-free boundary conditions. The simulations of the simplified analytical models for free PWAS-EMIS under these two assumptions are carried out. The analytical models are validated by corresponding finite element simulations as well as experimental measurements.