Thickness mode EMIS of constrained proof-mass piezoelectric wafer active sensors

Document Type


Subject Area(s)

Physics, Mechanical, Engineering


This paper addresses theoretical and experimental work on thickness-mode electromechanical (E/M) impedance spectroscopy (EMIS) of proof-mass piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PMPWAS). The proof-mass (PM) concept was used to develop a new method for tuning the ultrasonic wave modes and for relatively high frequency local modal sensing by the PM affixed on PWAS. In order to develop the theoretical basis of the PMPWAS tuning concept, analytical analyses were conducted by applying the resonator theory to derive the EMIS of a PWAS constrained on one and both surfaces by isotropic elastic materials. The normalized thickness-mode shapes were obtained for the normal mode expansion (NME) method to eventually predict the thickness-mode EMIS using the correlation between PMPWAS and the structural dynamic properties of the substrate. Proof-masses of different sizes and materials were used to tune the system resonance towards an optimal frequency point. The results were verified by coupled-field finite element analyses (CF-FEA) and experimental results. An application of the tuning effect of PM on the standing wave modes was discussed as the increase in PM thickness shifts the excitation frequency of the wave mode toward the surface acoustic wave (SAW) mode.