As one of the most important candidate technologies for the fifth-generation wireless communication systems, massive MIMO technology has been widely studied recently because of the significant improvements it can provide in terms of spectrum efficiency and power efficiency. As the foundation of wireless communication, research on propagation characteristics for massive MIMO channels is of primary importance. This paper investigates the characteristics for massive MIMO channels in an indoor hall scenario at 6-GHz. Channel measurements were conducted with a bandwidth of 200 MHz in both line of sight (LOS) and non-LOS (NLOS) conditions. The statistical parameters in the delay domain were extracted to show the spatial variation along the large-scale antenna array. Based on the measured data, the spatial variation is first defined, and then characterized by using the spatial power delay profile correlation coefficient and spatial channel gain correlation matrix collinearity, and the quasi-stationarity region along the massive MIMO array is estimated. Furthermore, by using the space-alternating generalized expectation-maximization algorithm, the multipath components are extracted and classified according to the propagation environments, which provide more insights to the spatial variation of massive MIMO channels. Finally, the characteristics of the extracted angular parameters are investigated and the fluctuations are modeled, where the spatial variation phenomenon was clearly observed over the large-scale antenna array. The quasi-stationarity distance of the variation was found to range from 2.5 to 32.5 cm, and the LOS case differs from the NLOS case at 6 GHz. These results and discussions are useful for analysis and future modeling for massive MIMO channels, and may contribute to future definitions of channel spatial consistency.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
Published in IEEE Access, Volume 5, 2017, pages 20828-20840.
© The authors. This work is published open access under a Creative Commons license.
Wang, Q., Ai, B., Matolak, D. W., He, R., Guan, K., Zhong, Z., & Li, D. (2017). Spatial variation analysis for measured indoor massive MIMO channels. IEEE Access, 5, 20828–20840. https://doi.org/10.1109/access.2017.2736522