Beliefs and Practices of Writing Instruction in Japanese Elementary Schools

Document Type


Subject Area(s)

writing; Japanese schools


Focusing on writing instruction within an era of international curricular reform, this study analysed classroom observations, educator interviews, and documents related to Japanese elementary writing instruction. A deductive approach using discourses of writing framework and an inductive approach to Japanese cultural practices uncovered beliefs and practices of writing instruction. Discourses of writing such as skills, creativity, process, genre, and social practice were found within cultural practices such as repetition, experience, and inner-most heart. These discourses influenced Japanese writing instruction, yet also created tension between cultural practices and current reform efforts aimed at expression and independent thinking.