Generous Reading Expands Teachers' Perceptions on Student Writing

Document Type


Subject Area(s)

writing; assessment; teacher; professional development


Five fifth-grade teachers used generous reading to expand their perspectives on student writing beyond the rubric-based writing assessment. Their discussions were recorded and compared to discussions of four fifth-grade teachers who did not use generous reading. Writing test scores of 61 student were also analyzed. Qualitative analysis revealed the five generous reading teachers addressed additional elements of writing beyond those addressed by the other teachers. Both groups of teachers expressed more negative judgements of African American writing, while empathizing with English learner writing. A discussion of rubric assessment and linguistically diverse student writing includes implications for instruction.


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Spence, L.K., Fan, X., Speece, L., & Bushaala, S. (2019). Generous Reading Expands Teachers’ Perceptions on Student Writing. Teaching and Teacher Education, 66, 96-106.