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• The juvenile-to-adult vegetative phase change in flowering plants is mediated by a decrease in miR156 levels. Downregulation of MIR156A/MIR156C, the two major sources of miR156, is accompanied by a decrease in acetylation of histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27ac) and an increase in trimethylation of H3K27 (H3K27me3) at MIR156A/MIR156C in Arabidopsis.

• Here, we show that histone deacetylase 9 (HDA9) is recruited to MIR156A/MIR156C during the juvenile phase and associates with the CHD3 chromatin remodeler PICKLE (PKL) to erase H3K27ac at MIR156A/MIR156C.

• H2Aub and H3K27me3 become enriched at MIR156A/MIR156C, and the recruitment of Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) to MIR156A/MIR156C is partially dependent on the activities of PKL and HDA9.

• Our results suggest that PKL associates with histone deacetylases to erase H3K27ac and promote PRC1 and PRC2 activities to mediate vegetative phase change and maintain plants in the adult phase after the phase transition.

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Hu, T., Manuela, D., Hinsch, V., & Xu, M. (2022). PICKLE associates with histone deacetylase 9 to mediate vegetative phase change in Arabidopsis. New Phytologist, 235(3), 1070–1081.

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