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This research is the result of archaeological testing that occurred from 2010–2012 at 38AL228, a multi-component quarry related site in Allendale County, South Carolina. This thesis 1) provides a summary of the testing in order to define the cultural sequence and isolate the Clovis component for further analysis, and 2) compares the Clovis lithic assemblage from 38AL228 with the Clovis lithic assemblage from the Topper site (38AL23) to explore possible manufacturing variability based on distance from the source of raw material within the Allendale chert quarries. The premise for the comparative analysis is framed around the concept of differential lithic signatures and site functions within a lithic quarry region as developed by Gardner (1974, 1977) for the Flint Run Quarry Complex in Virginia. No naturally occurring source of Allendale chert has been found at 38AL228, the nearest being 150-200 meters away, while Topper is located directly adjacent to a primary chert source. The large quantity of tools, cores, and lithic manufacturing debris at 38AL228 suggests that raw material was transported in and tool manufacturing occurred at the site. This analysis tests whether any substantive variation in lithic manufacturing exists between the two assemblages and examines the results in the context of proximity to the raw material source. The results of this analysis demonstrate variability in certain aspects of lithic manufacturing at 38AL228 and Topper and no recognizable variability in other aspects. Distance from the raw material source did not significantly influence Clovis biface production. All stages of Clovis biface manufacture are represented at 38AL228, and their distribution is proportionally similar to the Clovis bifaces recovered at Topper. Clovis blade technology is encountered more frequently at 38AL228 than Topper, suggesting that high-quality chert nodules or prepared blade cores were selectively imported into 38AL228 for blade manufacture. The types and frequency of Clovis flake tools indicate that non-lithic manufacturing activities were occurring in similar proportions at 38AL228 and Topper.

Publication Date



The South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology - University of South Carolina




Clovis, Lithic, Chert, Allendale, Topper, Paleoindian, South Carolina


Archaeological Anthropology


This is the "Occasional Papers 4" of the Southeastern Paleoamerican Survey.

Clovis Lithic Manufacturing Variability at the Allendale Chert Quarries: A Preliminary View from 38AL228, Allendale County, South Carolina