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An archeological survey of a 140 acre tract of land on the Colleton River, Beaufort County, South Carolina, scheduled for industrial development by the Chicago Bridge and Iron Company, was conducted by the Institute of Archeology and Anthropology on April 14-17, 1976. Surface investigation and subsurface sampling were used to locate eleven archeological sites on, or very near, the impact zone, two of which (38BUl05 and 38BUl06) had been recorded in a previous survey in 1973. One site (38BU125) is of the historic period but appears to have been almost totally destroyed by bank erosion and its remains are probably washed into the Colleton River. Underwater investigation of this area is recommended. Four sites (38BUl06, 38BU126, 38BU127, and 38BU128) are outside the impact zone but relate directly to those within the impact zone. One of these (38BU128) will apparently be affected by the project as it is said to be scheduled for use as a spoil area. Seven sites are within the direct impact zone, five of which (38BU124, 38BU129, 38BU130, 38BU13l, and 38BU132) are stratified shell midden sites of the Wilmington culture period dating from about A.D. 700 to A.D. 1100. These five sites exhibit a patterned cultural content and geographic location that is consistent throughout. Each is a series of discrete shell middens situated in the interior (away from the river) and adjacent to prehistoric freshwater lakes or ponds. This kind of consistent settlement pattern is extremely important to the understanding of a culture complex. A settlement-subsistence pattern adapted to intensive exploitation of fresh water, coastal resources is suggested. This adaptive pattern has been termed the Coastal Lacustrine Adaptive Pattern. Three of the sites discussed in the paragraph above (38BU124, 38BU129, and 38BU132) are recommended for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. It is recommended that each of these three be extensively excavated and interpreted in order to mitigate the adverse affects to them that the construction project poses.
The South Carolina Institute of Archeology and Anthropology--University of South Carolina
Excavations, Colleton River, Chicago Bridge and Iron Company, Beaufort County, South Carolina, Archeology
Widmer, Randolph J., "An Archeological Survey and Assessment of Cultural Resources of the Chicago Bridge and Iron Company's Victoria Bluff Facility, Beaufort County, South Carolina" (1976). Research Manuscript Series. 81.