A fundamental question in natural language processing is - what kind of language structure and semantics is the language model capturing? Graph formats such as knowledge graphs are easy to evaluate as they explicitly express language semantics and structure. This study evaluates the semantics encoded in the self-attention transformers by leveraging explicit knowledge graph structures. We propose novel metrics to measure the reconstruction error when providing graph path sequences from a knowledge graph and trying to reproduce/reconstruct the same from the outputs of the self-attention transformer models. The opacity of language models has an immense bearing on societal issues of trust and explainable decision outcomes. Our findings suggest that language models are models of stochastic control processes for plausible language pattern generation. However, they do not ascribe object and concept-level meaning and semantics to the learned stochastic patterns such as those described in knowledge graphs. Furthermore, to enable robust evaluation of concept understanding by language models, we construct and make public an augmented language understanding benchmark built on the General Language Understanding Evaluation (GLUE) benchmark. This has significant application-level user trust implications as stochastic patterns without a strong sense of meaning cannot be trusted in high-stakes applications.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
Postprint version. Published in 2023 IEEE Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 2023.
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Roy, K., Garg, T., Palit, V., Zi, Y., Narayanan, V., & Sheth, A. (2023). Knowledge graph guided semantic evaluation of language models for user trust. 2023 IEEE Conference on Artificial Intelligence. https://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/CAI54212.2023.00108
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