Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems for mental healthcare (MHCare) have been ever-growing after realizing the importance of early interventions for patients with chronic mental health (MH) conditions. Social media (SocMedia) emerged as the go-to platform for supporting patients seeking MHCare. The creation of peer-support groups without social stigma has resulted in patients transitioning from clinical settings to SocMedia supported interactions for quick help. Researchers started exploring SocMedia content in search of cues that showcase correlation or causation between different MH conditions to design better interventional strategies. User-level Classification-based AI systems were designed to leverage diverse SocMedia data from various MH conditions, to predict MH conditions. Subsequently, researchers created classification schemes to measure the severity of each MH condition. Such ad-hoc schemes, engineered features, and models not only require a large amount of data but fail to allow clinically acceptable and explainable reasoning over the outcomes. To improve Neural-AI for MHCare, infusion of clinical symbolic knowledge that clinicans use in decision making is required. An impactful use case of Neural-AI systems in MH is conversational systems. These systems require coordination between classification and generation to facilitate humanistic conversation in conversational agents (CA). Current CAs with deep language models lack factual correctness, medical relevance, and safety in their generations, which intertwine with unexplainable statistical classification techniques. This lecture-style tutorial will demonstrate our investigations into Neuro-symbolic methods of infusing clinical knowledge to improve the outcomes of Neural-AI systems to improve interventions for MHCare:(a) We will discuss the use of diverse clinical knowledge in creating specialized datasets to train Neural-AI systems effectively. (b) Patients with cardiovascular disease express MH symptoms differently based on gender differences. We will show that knowledge-infused Neural-AI systems can identify gender-specific MH symptoms in such patients. (c) We will describe strategies for infusing clinical process knowledge as heuristics and constraints to improve language models in generating relevant questions and responses.
Preprint version ACM Proceedings of AIML Systems Conference, Fall 2022.
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Roy, K., Lokala, U., Gaur, M., & Sheth, A. (2022). Tutorial: Neuro-symbolic AI for Mental Healthcare. ACM Proceedings of AIML Systems Conference.