Background: Evidence remains equivocal regarding the association of inflammation, a precursor to cardiovascular disease, and acute exposures to ambient air pollution from traffic-related particulate matter. Though youth with type 1 diabetes are at higher risk for cardiovascular disease, the relationship of inflammation and ambient air pollution exposures in this population has received little attention.
Objectives: Using five geographically diverse US sites from the racially- and ethnically-diverse SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Cohort, we examined the relationship of acute exposures to PM2.5 mass, Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling System (ADMS)-Roads traffic-related PM concentrations near roadways, and elemental carbon (EC) with biomarkers of inflammation including interleukin-6 (IL-6), c-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and fibrinogen.
Methods: Baseline questionnaires and blood were obtained at a study visit. Using a spatio-temporal modeling approach, pollutant exposures for 7 days prior to blood draw were assigned to residential addresses. Linear mixed models for each outcome and exposure were adjusted for demographic and lifestyle factors identified a priori.
Results: Among the 2566 participants with complete data, fully-adjusted models showed positive associations of EC average week exposures with IL-6 and hs-CRP, and PM2.5 mass exposures on lag day 3 with IL-6 levels. Comparing the 25th and 75th percentiles of average week EC exposures resulted in 8.3% higher IL-6 (95%CI: 2.7%,14.3%) and 9.8% higher hs-CRP (95%CI: 2.4%,17.7%). We observed some evidence of effect modification for the relationships of PM2.5 mass exposures with hs-CRP by gender and with IL-6 by race/ethnicity.
Conclusions: Indicators of inflammation were associated with estimated traffic-related air pollutant exposures in this study population of youth with type 1 diabetes. Thus youth with type 1 diabetes may be at increased risk of air pollution-related inflammation. These findings and the racial/ethnic and gender differences observed deserve further exploration.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
Published in Environment International, Volume 132, 2019.
© 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/BY-NC-ND/4.0/).
Puett, R., Yanosky, J., Mittleman, M., Montresor-Lopez, J., Bell, R., & Crume, T. et al. (2019). Inflammation and acute traffic-related air pollution exposures among a cohort of youth with type 1 diabetes. Environment International, 132, 105064.