Previous studies have found that diet’s inflammatory potential is related to various diseases. However, little is known about its relationship with osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the dietary inflammatory index (DII®) and osteoporosis risk in a large-scale prospective cohort study in Korea. This prospective cohort study included 159,846 participants (men 57,740; women 102,106) from South Korea with a mean follow-up of 7.9 years. The DII was calculated through a validated semi-quantitative FFQ (SQFFQ), and information on osteoporosis was self-reported by the participants. Analyses were performed by using a multivariable Cox proportional hazard model. Higher DII scores were associated with higher osteoporosis risk (HR 1.33; 95% CI 1.12–1.58). In women, a higher DII score indicated a higher risk of osteoporosis (HR 1.33; 95% CI 1.11–1.59). However, a hazards ratio of similar magnitude in men was not significant (HR 1.32; 95% CI 0.64–2.71). Post-menopausal women had higher risks of osteoporosis for higher DII scores (HR 1.33; 95% CI 1.09–1.63), whereas among pre-menopausal women, the relationship was not statistically significant (HR 1.39; 95% CI 0.87–2.21). Also, there was an increase in osteoporosis risk when the DII increased among women participants with irregular physical activity (HR 1.53; 95% CI 1.17–2.01); however, there was no statistically significant increase in osteoporosis risk among women participants with regular physical activity (HR 1.19; 95% CI 0.93–1.52). A more pro-inflammatory diet was significantly associated with higher osteoporosis risk in women. Given the similar magnitude of the hazards ratio, studies with sufficient numbers of men are warranted.
Published in Nutrients, Volume 10, Issue 12, 2018, pages 1-15.
© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Kim, H., Sohn, C., Kwon, M., Na, W., Shivappa, N., Hébert, J., & Kim, M. (2018). Positive Association between Dietary Inflammatory Index and the Risk of Osteoporosis: Results from the KoGES_Health Examinee (HEXA) Cohort Study. Nutrients, 10(12), 1999. doi: 10.3390/nu10121999