Individuals who carry a premutation (PM) allele on the FMR1 gene may experience executive limitations associated with their genetic status, including inhibition deficits. However, poor understanding of individualized risk factors has limited clinical management of this group, particularly in mothers who carry the PM allele who have children with fragile X syndrome (FXS). The present study examined CGG repeat length and age as factors that may account for variable expressivity of inhibition deficits. Participants were 134 carriers of the PM allele who were mothers of children with FXS. Inhibition skills were measured using both self-report and direct behavioral assessments. Increased vulnerability for inhibition deficits was observed at mid-range CGG lengths of approximately 80-100 repeats, with some evidence of a second zone of vulnerability occurring at approximately 130-140 CGG repeats. Risk associated with the genotype also became more pronounced with older age. This study identifies personalized risk factors that may be used to tailor the clinical management of executive deficits in carriers of the PM allele. Inhibition deficits may contribute to poor outcomes in carriers of the PM allele and their families, particularly in midlife and early old age, and clinical monitoring may be warranted.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
Postprint version. Published in Brain and Cognition, Volume 139, 2020, pages 105511-.
© 2020, Elsevier Inc. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
Klusek, J., Hong, J., Sterling, A., Berry-Kravis, E., & Mailick, M. (2020). Inhibition deficits are modulated by age and CGG repeat length in carriers of the FMR1 premutation allele who are mothers of children with fragile X syndrome. Brain And Cognition, 139, 105511. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2019.105511