Pharmaceuticals are increasingly detected in water bodies, and their presence can negatively impact aquatic organisms. This effect can be amplified when combined with increasing salinity in freshwater ecosystems. Acetaminophen is a widely used analgesic that is commonly found in river, streams, and waters where it is discharged directly. Therefore, organisms present in these locations (e.g., insects, snails, amphibians, and fish) are likely to be affected by acetaminophen. In this study, we determined the effects of elevated salinity (0.68 g/L), acetaminophen (500 µg/L) and combined elevated salinity (0.68 g/L) and acetaminophen (500 µg/L), on the growth, reproduction, and movement of the freshwater snail Physa acuta. There were no effects on growth or reproduction. No changes were observed on movement in individual treatments groups; however, there was a significant effect in the combined treatment of salinity and acetaminophen. It is likely that an energetic trade-off between physiological mechanisms resulted in a synergistic negative effect on snails.
Sackey-Ansah, Michelle; Mackey, Megan; Elias, Daniel; Doll, Jason; and Brookhart, Alyssa
"The Effects of Salinity and Acetaminophen on the Aquatic Snail Physa acuta,"
Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science: Vol. 21:
1, Article 6.
Available at: https://scholarcommons.sc.edu/jscas/vol21/iss1/6