The Effect of Acetaminophen (Analgesic) and Diphenhydramine (Antihistamine) on Nociception Response of Caenorhabditis elegans, Heart Rate of Eisenia fetida, and Mortality of Both E. fetida and C. elegans
Pharmaceutical pollution continues to increase each year but its adverse effects on the environment are still largely unknown. Pharmaceuticals can enter the terrestrial ecosystem when animal manure and sewage sludge are applied to land as a fertilizer or when irrigated with contaminated water. To understand the extent to which common drugs impact the ecosystem, two commonly polluting pharmaceuticals, acetaminophen and diphenhydramine, which have been found in many cities such as Chicago, Dallas, and most notably The Great Lakes, were studied. Various concentrations were tested on E. fetida and C. elegans. Indicators such as heart rate were observed for E. fetida, nociception response for C. elegans, and mortality for both. It was hypothesized that when acetaminophen and diphenhydramine were introduced, all indicators would be negatively affected. Thirty trials were conducted for each test. The results indicated the pharmaceuticals had a significant impact on heart rate, nociception response, and mortality of both E. fetida and C. elegans respectively: (F(6,48)=262.33, pE. fetida in some cases and nociception response decreasing by over 46% for C. elegans, it was concluded that both populations were negatively affected by acetaminophen and diphenhydramine. Based on experimentation, even small concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the environment can have detrimental effects to certain organisms, severely impacting the ecosystem.
"The Effect of Acetaminophen (Analgesic) and Diphenhydramine (Antihistamine) on Nociception Response of Caenorhabditis elegans, Heart Rate of Eisenia fetida, and Mortality of Both E. fetida and C. elegans,"
Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science: Vol. 16
, Article 3.
Available at: https://scholarcommons.sc.edu/jscas/vol16/iss2/3