This study sought out to more clearly understand the relationship between Joule heating and fluid flow in microfluidic environments, and more specifically, under what circumstances would the fluid flow in the device possibly hinder an experiment being run on it. It had been previous theorised that an electric field may produce turbulence and even vortices within the fluid, which this study attempted to reproduce. Several variables were tested, namely insulating and conducting fluids, higher and lower AC voltages, Newtonian vs. non-Newtonian fluids, and higher and lower DC voltages. A correlation between these variables and turbulent flow was found, with more conductive fluids, higher AC voltages, non-Newtonian fluids, and higher DC voltages more prone to fluid turbulence.
Spitzer, Alexander P.
"The Effects of Joule Heating on Electric-Driven Microfluidic Flow,"
Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science: Vol. 15:
2, Article 18.
Available at: https://scholarcommons.sc.edu/jscas/vol15/iss2/18