Document Type


Subject Area(s)

Business - International


In four countries, levels of trust and reciprocity in direct-reciprocal

exchange are compared with those in network-generalized exchanges

among experimentally manipulated groups’ members (neighbors) or

random experimental participants (strangers). Results show that cooperation

decreases as social distance increases; and, that identical

network-generalized exchanges generate different amounts of trusting

behavior due solely to manipulated social identity between the actors.

This study demonstrates the interaction of culture and social identity

on the propensity to trust and reciprocate and also reveals differing

relationships between trust and reciprocation in each of the four countries,

bringing into question the theoretical relationship between these

cooperative behaviors.