Author

Sanjay Chopra

Date of Award

Summer 2021

Document Type

Open Access Dissertation

Department

Mechanical Engineering

First Advisor

Jamil Khan

Abstract

World electricity demand is projected to grow at an annual rate of ~ 2.1% to year 2040₁. EIA projects nearly 50% increase in world energy usage by 2050 led by growth in Asia.[28];[29]. It is predicted that the global electricity demand grows at approximately 1.6 % per year from approximately 2008 and forecasted to approximately 2035, twice the rate of primary energy demand. This raises electricity's usage in total final energy consumption from approximately 19% in 2018 to approximately 24% in 2040. Electricity demand growth is set to be particularly strong in developing economies. .[28];[29];[38] As an enabler, to meet the aforementioned targets, market success has been and currently is the prime driver towards further enhancing the demand for the worldwide power generation industry; to advance beyond their current technological prowess and continuously drive the overall enhancement for highly efficient, carbon neutral and robust power generating equipment. Technologies aligned to the prime power generating machines, gas and steam turbines have been evolving for decades. However, it is not until relatively recently that full awareness and prime focus of addressing fuel cost, plant availability and increases in RAM (Reliability, Availability & Maintainability) and most of all addressing environmental concerns such as reduction of carbon footprint, collectively have prompted a paradigm shift in constantly challenging the status quo on turbine heat rate and the associated longevity of the Hot Gas Path components, due to harsh environments. To ensure meeting the challenges of constantly increasing the overall thermodynamic cycle efficiency for both simple and combined cycle applications; the author applies his knowledge garnered from his academic and professional experiences, in conjunction with his in-depth research of thoroughly comprehending the pivotal challenges in the power generation realm, and hence by doing so; the author has endeavored to traverse upon an academic journey of profound understanding to mathematically integrate the necessary physics based scientific principles imbedded in the various engineering related disciplines that are directly applied into the field of turbomachinery. The author has profoundly researched and humbly applied the known scientific principles based on the fundamental laws of one-dimensional aerodynamics, thermodynamics & cycle performance, Gas dynamics, fluid mechanics, heat transfer, structural assessments of materials and the tools of mathematics and thus has generated a unique set of regression equations or rather transfer functions that unifies or rather synergistically couples the fundamental scientific principles as stated above. The unified consolidated theoretical formulation hence produced, can be applied towards predicting from a preliminary perspective, the impact of a single stage high pressure turbine’s performance characteristics and simultaneously also predict from a preliminary perspective, the overall gas turbine thermal efficiency, as a function of varying engine critical to quality parameters, AK. A pivotal CTQ’s. The methodology and execution approach that has been applied to establish the author’s proposal has been conducted by synergizing the fundamental multi-physics-based engineering disciplines delineating specifically the high-pressure turbine stage simple cycle engine operation. The author has produced a series of multiple regression or transfer functions, capturing or rather reflecting the prime influence of the assortment of technical enablers which allows for further investigating its impact on turbine thermal efficiency and associated component durability that directly influences the overall machine performance, life cycle of the component and finally its influence on the heat rate of the single stage simple cycle gas turbine; which is indeed a key economic factor in the commercial arena. Hence to address the gargantuan and challenging requirement to meet the ever-increasing demand for power generation; expeditious engine assessment, part evaluation and dispositioning of turbine component integrity while simultaneously sustaining optimal engine heat rate are required to be assessed.

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