John Borman

Date of Award

Spring 2021

Document Type

Open Access Dissertation


Educational Studies

First Advisor

Linda Silvernail


Learning novel physical motor skills can be frustrating for some students. A lack of clear feedback further exacerbates the problem for students’ skill development. This study examined the benefits of using video recording as augmented feedback to inform motor skill development in an applied gymnastics course at a service academy. The primary aim was to identify the effects of video feedback on the instructor/student process for skill evaluation and skill improvement. The secondary aim was to examine at what degree does giving video feedback promote female student motivation to learn, use of deliberate practice, autonomy, and competence. This action research study sought a more efficient method of providing female students individualized feedback with the goal of decreasing the physical skill gap between the males and females at the academy.

Data from instructor observations, pre/post-test questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, video recordings, and student self-assessments were analyzed. The low performing female students (N=10) within the gymnastics course were provided video feedback on their graded attempts at three gymnastic skills. After each graded attempt, the instructor replayed video of the attempt with the student to identify performance deficiencies. All participants completed three attempts at three separate skills: cartwheel, vertical rope climb, and shelf mount. Each attempt was scored on a five-point scale. Prior to each attempt, students provided an estimate of their projected score on the attempt. Participants also completed a pre/post-task questionnaire to measure demographics, motivation, perceived competence, and autonomy.

Data analysis revealed skill improvement in the participants. Overall, all the participants improved their task score on at least one event. Furthermore, half of the participants increased their task score on all three events. All the participants identified the video feedback as helpful for improving at least one of their skills. Within the group, 70% of students reported an increase in perceived competence, 90% reported an increase in autonomy, and 80% of the students reported an increase in motivation. Overall, 90% of the participants recommended the future use of the video feedback in the performance of each of the performance skills.

Findings demonstrated that students perceived video feedback as an effective method for enhancing skill improvement in gymnastics class. These findings indicate video feedback can be used to improve motivation, deliberate practice, competence, and autonomy. The ability to visualize performance cues for the students may also result in faster motor skill acquisition. The study suggests video feedback is an effective method of augmented feedback for students struggling with novel physical motor skill progressions.