Yeoju Park

Date of Award

Summer 2020

Document Type

Open Access Dissertation


Criminology and Criminal Justice

First Advisor

Christi S. Metcalfe


The current study aims to assess the continuous impact of direct/vicarious victimization on subsequent victimization and delinquency/crime across waves using an incorporated model of Agnew’s general strain theory and the lifestyle/routine activities perspective. This study also aims to assess the additive and cumulative impact of dual victimization (i.e., exposure to direct and vicarious victimization) on offending. A cross-lagged model is conducted to examine the impacts of direct victimization, vicarious victimization, and delinquency/crime at an early point in time on these variables at later points in time using three waves from the Pathways to Desistance Study. Negative binomial regression models and fractional probit models are conducted to examine the influence of dual victimization and chronic/repeat dual victimization on delinquency/crime. Chronic/repeat dual victimization captures the number of prior waves of exposure to dual victimization. Results reveal that prior vicarious victimization is positively related to subsequent delinquency/crime, while the lagged impact of direct victimization on delinquency/crime is limited. There is a positive influence of dual victimization on delinquency/crime. A harmful effect of chronic dual victimization is also found, although this impact is less significant at four or more prior waves of exposure to dual victimization. While there is support for many of the propositions of GST, there are some inconsistencies regarding the propositions of lifestyle/routine activities perspective. The findings suggest the need for further assessments of the temporal patterns of strain, as well as further consideration of the contemporaneous versus lagged effects of victimization and crime/delinquency.