Date of Award

Spring 2020

Document Type

Open Access Dissertation

Department

Physical Education

First Advisor

Ali S. Brian

Abstract

This dissertation consists of three studies which explored self-perceptions, parents’ perceptions, and metaperceptions in youth with a visual impairments (VI) using the tripartite model of efficacy beliefs. These studies have the potential to practitioners and parents providing novel understandings of perception influences in youth with a VI. Thus, the purpose of this dissertation was to explore self-perceptions, parents’ perceptions, and metaperceptions in youth with a VI.

The purpose of Study 1 was to determine the content/face validity of the selfperceptions, parents’ perceptions, and metaperception questionnaires for youth with VI. Participants (N = 13, males = 2; females = 11) included experts from four categories: (a) teachers directly working with students with VI in schools (teachers of the visually impaired [TVI], orientation and mobility specialists [O and M], adapted and general physical educators (n = 6), (b) researchers who publish studies in the field of physical education, motor behavior, or VI (n = 3), (c) parents with children with VI (n = 2), and (d) individuals with a documented VI (n = 2). A Delphi method was used for this study because it was using experts’ feedback to help address incomplete knowledge about a problem in the field of VI. After two rounds during the Delphi procedure, results showed means above a 4.0 for all three questionnaires. The content/face validity of the instruments were found to be acceptable from the panel of experts in the fields of motor development and VI.

The first purpose of study 2 was to determine the present levels of the tripartite model of efficacy beliefs variables based upon age, sex, and degree of vision. A vii secondary purpose of study 2 was to determine the differential effects of age, sex, and degree of vision on the tripartite model of efficacy beliefs for youth with VI. The third purpose of study 2 was to explore the differences of self-, parent-, and metaperceptions of youth with VI when compared to their peers without VI. Participants (N = 95; = 37% girls; = 61% white) were recruited from several seven-day sports camp for youth with VI (Camp Abilities: Brockport, NY; Neptune Beach, FL; Saratoga Springs, NY; Denton, TX). Participants parents were also recruited for participation in this study. Parents (N = 93; = 71% moms) demographic information were as follows: Mage = 42.91, SD = 8.08 years. Participants with VI completed the. Test of Perceived Physical Competence for VI (TPPC-VI), the self-perception questionnaire, and metaperception questionnaire. Parents completed the parent perception questionnaire. A Mann-Whitney U test suggested metaperceptions (U = 805.50, z = -2.18, p = 0.03) and self-perceptions (U = 758.00, z = - 2.53, p = .01) were significant based on sex. Boys portrayed higher ranks on metaperceptions (53.12), parent perceptions (47.43), and self-perceptions (53.96) when compared to girls. A Kruskal-Wallis H test revealed significant differences on selfperceptions X2 (3), = 8.23, p = 0.04 with a mean rank on age band 9-10 of 40.81, age band 11-12 of 43.47, age band 13-14 of 46.63 and age band 15+ of 63.71, parent perceptions X2 (3), = 8.81, p = .03 with a mean rank on age band 9-10 of 32.06, age band 11-12 of 43.73, age band 13-14 of 56.15, age band 15+ of 49.64, and metaperceptions X2 (3), = 9.47, p = .02 with a mean rank on age band 9-10 of 38.88, age band 11-12 of 44.86, age band 13-14 of 45.48, and age band 15+ of 64.68. Another Kruskal-Wallis test was used to evaluate the differences among the four degrees of vision (B1, B2, B3, B4) on self-perceptions, parent perceptions, and metaperceptions. The results revealed a viii significant difference for parent perceptions X2 (3), = 13.28, p = .004 with a mean rank on B1 of 35.90, B2 of 36.25, B3 of 49.81, and B4 of 64.39. A Wilcoxon test revealed significant difference for all variables when youth with VI compared themselves to their peers without VI. Self-perceptions Wilcoxon rank test revealed, z = -4.93, p < .001, while the mean of the ranks in favor of peers without VI was 36.36, and the mean of the ranks in favor of peers with VI was 25.07. Parent perceptions Wilcoxon rank test revealed, z = - 5.75, p < .001, while the mean of the ranks in favor of peers without VI was 37.43, and the mean of the ranks in favor of peers with VI was 33.94. Metaperceptions Wilcoxon rank test revealed, z = -4.14, p < .001, while the mean of the ranks in favor of peers without VI was 31.14, and the mean of the ranks in favor of peers with VI was 25.95. Youth with a VI have lower self-, parent-, and metaperceptions compared to their peers without VI. Practitioners should promote perceptions and keep youth with VI’s perceptions high. Parents are critical influence in a child with a VI’s life, therefore, it is important that practitioners communicate and work with parents to keep parents’ perceptions high.

The purpose study 3 was to determine how the tripartite model of efficacy beliefs variables predicts actual motor competence above and beyond age, sex, and degree of vision for youth with VI. Participants (N = 91; Boys = 56; Girls = 35) were recruited from multiple seven-day sports camp for children with VI (Camp Abilities: Brockport, NY; Neptune Beach, FL; Saratoga Springs, NY; Denton, TX). Participants with VI are a convenience sample of individuals ages 9-19 years (Mage = 12.76 years, SD = 2.33 years). Participants were obtained through multiple degrees of vision (B1 = 25, B2 = 17, B3 = 38, and B4 = 14). Parents (N = 93; Mothers = 74, Fathers = 19; Mage= 42.91 years, ix SD = 8.08 years) also participated in this study. Participants with a VI completed the TPPC-VI, self-perception questionnaire, metaperception questionnaire, and the Test of Gross Motor Development -Edition 3 (TGMD-3). Parents completed the parent questionnaire. The hierarchical regression revealed that self-perceptions, parent perceptions, and metaperceptions significantly explained 26% (F (3, 87) = 9.47, p < .001, DR2 = .25; see table 5.4) above and beyond age, sex, and degree of vision (F (3, 87) = 9.47, p < .001, adjR2 = .22) of the total 51% variance (F (6, 84) = 10.93, p < .001; adjR2 = .47) in actual motor competence. Parent perceptions (b = .50, p < .001) and degree of vision (b = .25, p = .004) were significant predictors of actual motor competence. No other factors were significant. With parents being the most significant predictor of their children’s actual motor competence, it is important to keep those perceptions high. Parent/child interventions should be developed to educate parents on the importance of motor competence.

These data have the potential to impact youth with a VI which could in turn influence practitioners and parents of youth with a VI. Information gathered from this dissertation suggests that parents’ perceptions can be one significant predictor of their children’s actual motor competence which could be a reason why their motor competence levels are low compared to their peers without a VI. Interventions may be developed in the future to target parent and child with a VI to keep perceptions high when comparing themselves to their peers without a VI.

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