Date of Award


Document Type

Campus Access Thesis


School of Hotel, Restaurant and Tourism Management


International Hospitality and Tourism Management

First Advisor

Xiang Li


Most studies on travel/leisure constraints to date were conducted in western countries under a western-dominant paradigm (Iwasaki, Nishino, Onda, & Bowling, 2007). It is not clear if people from non-western countries, such as Japan, are facing different outbound travel constraints from their western partners, and if constraint research in the Asian context will generate results inconsistent with findings from previous research. This study aims to explore the constraint attributes that prevent Japanese citizens from taking outbound travel; also to examine the effect of key moderating factors on different groups' travel constraints. The data were drawn from an online panel survey on 1,200 past and potential Japanese outbound travelers. Crawford, Jackson and Godbey (1991)'s hierarchical Model of Leisure Constraints was used as the guiding theoretical framework for the study.

This thesis revealed the constraints that Japanese tourists face for their U.S.-bound travel. Four categories of constraints emerged in this study: personal preference, psychological concern, cost concern, and accessibility issues. Also, 7 hypothesis tests had run and identified several differences between Western and Japanese travelers' perceived travel constraints.