Document Type



A miniature implanted Hilbert inverted-F antenna design at the 1.575 GHz; global positioning system (GPS) frequency is proposed, which can be used to track the location of its user, e.g., the elderly with declining mental capacity (alzheimer's disease). A detailed parametric study of the antenna design is performed by considering it to be implanted within a human muscle model. The effects of the substrate, superstrate, and the nearby muscle tissue on antenna performance are carefully investigated. A laboratory prototype of the antenna was built and tested within a muscle equivalent fluid indicating good VSWR performance. Finally the said antenna when placed within the tissue equivalent fluid was also tested to track GPS satellites with the help of a low noise amplifier (LNa). Such field measurements demonstrate that the antenna can easily lock into six or more satellites which are more than enough to determine the location of a person.