Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) is a potential candidate key technology for the 5G of wireless communication systems. In research to date, different power loss and shadowing effects on different antenna elements across the large arrays have been neglected. In this paper, based on an idealized propagation model, a new large scale attenuation (LSA) model is proposed, by which the large scale losses (path loss and shadowing effect) over the antenna array can be considered when establishing a massive MIMO channel model. By using this model, the spectral efficiency (in terms of bits/s/Hz sum-rate) of the maximum ratio combining (MRC) detector is derived for the uplink. The spectral efficiency performance of the zero forcing (ZF) detector also can be derived in the same manner. It can be found that the sumrate performance (MRC and ZF) of our proposed channel model (assuming independent shadowing on all elements of the array) exceeds that of the conventional model (where the LSA effect is not included). Based upon our theoretical and simulation analysis, we have found that the spectral efficiency gap is mainly from the mean value of different shadowing effects across different elements, and the different path losses experienced by different antenna elements provide negligible contribution. This LSA model and the derived performance results could be beneficial and informative for the research, design and evaluation of the next generation of wireless communication system employing a massive MIMO configuration.
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Published in IEEE Access, Volume 5, 2017, pages 4285-4297.
© The authors. This work is published open access under a Creative Commons license.
Liu, L., Matolak, D. W., Tao, C., & Li, Y. (2017). Analysis of an upper bound on the effects of large scale attenuation on uplink transmission performance for massive MIMO Systems. IEEE Access, 5, 4285–4297. https://doi.org/10.1109/access.2017.2684089