Document Type


Subject Area(s)

Electrical Engineering, Physics


Path loss modeling for both regular and irregular terrains is still gaining significant attention from researchers. A sloped terrain is one specific kind of an irregular terrain that-as far as we are aware-has not been completely studied. Although some results have been published for slope path loss modeling in cellular communication, an adequate model for the case when the transmitter (Tx) and the receiver (Rx) both have low-height antennas and are located on or near a slope does not exist. In this paper, for complete analysis of such conditions, we consider four scenarios: 1) two vehicles are located at opposite ends of the slope; 2) one vehicle is on the slope, and the other vehicle is beyond the slope crest; 3) one vehicle is on the slope, and the other is away from the slope at the bottom; 4) both vehicles are on the slope. For scenarios 1 and 2, we have developed analytical path loss models. We have also made some corroborating measurements for scenario 1. Scenarios 3 and 4 are addressed by models already in the literature. Simulation results for two vehicles traveling toward, on, and then beyond a slope (a sequence of our scenarios) are also shown to illustrate how sloped-terrain path loss varies in contrast to the typical flat-earth condition. Our models for scenarios 1 and 2 add to the literature and can be used to numerically estimate path losses for vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication over a slope.