Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) with log-mel audio representation and CNN-based end-to-end learning have both been used for environmental event sound recognition (ESC). However, log-mel features can be complemented by features learned from the raw audio waveform with an effective fusion method. In this paper, we first propose a novel stacked CNN model with multiple convolutional layers of decreasing filter sizes to improve the performance of CNN models with either log-mel feature input or raw waveform input. These two models are then combined using the Dempster–Shafer (DS) evidence theory to build the ensemble DS-CNN model for ESC. Our experiments over three public datasets showed that our method could achieve much higher performance in environmental sound recognition than other CNN models with the same types of input features. This is achieved by exploiting the complementarity of the model based on log-mel feature input and the model based on learning features directly from raw waveforms.
Published in Applied Sciences, Volume 8, Issue 7, 2018, pages 1-20.
© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Li, S., Yao, Y., Hu, J., Liu, G., Yao, X., & Hu, J. (2018). An Ensemble Stacked Convolutional Neural Network Model for Environmental Event Sound Recognition. Applied Sciences, 8(7), 1152. doi: 10.3390/app8071152