Document Type


Subject Area(s)

Social and Behavioral Sciences, Sociology, Gender and Sexuality, Inequality and Stratification


This study provides a macro-level comparison of the rights and privileges that women have around the world through the development of a multi-dimensional index of pro-woman states.

This is important because states that score highly on the index provide models for decreasing gender inequalities and increasing human rights for women worldwide. Cross-national differences in female education, employment, reproductive freedom, and participation in state policy formation are explored. Pro-woman states have policies that are associated with higher levels of education, income, and satisfaction. An understanding of the rights and privileges provided in pro-woman states can be used to restructure the welfare state to encourage the empowerment of women and the development of more equal societies.