Document Type


Subject Area(s)

Chemical Engineering


A mathematical model is developed that predicts the voltage-capacity behavior of a primary lithium battery containing a hybrid cathode, which combines the high energy density of carbon monofluoride (CFx) and the higher power density of silver vanadium oxide (SVO). The model is developed using material balances and kinetic expressions for each material, extracting kinetic and thermodynamic parameters from data collected on CFx and SVO batteries, and then integrating this information into a hybrid system. The full model is validated by comparing simulations to experimental data on Li/CFx-SVO hybrid-cathode batteries of various designs and for a range of discharge currents. The model closely agrees with the data up to moderate discharge rates, beyond which the model overpredicts voltage as ignored phenomena (mainly, ohmic resistance) become important.