Albert C. Goodyear, John E. Foss, and Kenneth E. Sassaman
This multi-article volume was edited by Albert C. Goodyear, John E. Foss, and Kenneth E. Sassaman.
Preface - Albert C. Goodyear and John E. Foss.....v
Stratigraphy and Soil Chronosequence of the Brasstown Sites: A Model for Age Assessment of Alluvium in the Southern Blue Ridge, U.S.A. - David S. Leigh and John S. Cable.....1
Stratigraphy and Landscape Evolution: Implications for the Development of Cultural/Temporal Models in the Sand Hills of West-Central Louisiana - Charles Cantley and John E. Foss.....11
Gastrolith-Derived Stone Concentration in Deep Loess Soil of the Middle and Lower Mississippi River Valley, U.S.A. - Troy Cox.....27
Bioturbation to Bulldozers: The Myth of Undisturbed Sites and Its Implications in Cultural Resource Studies - Thomas J. Padgett.....35
Evidence for Subsurface Translocation of Ceramic Artifacts in a Vertisol in Eastern Crete, Greece - Michael W. Morris, John T. Ammons, and Photeinos Santas.....41
Variable Artifact Displacement and Replacement in a Holocene Eolian Feature - Joel Gunn and John E. Foss.....53
Prehistory and Holocene Floodplain Evolution Along the Inner Coastal Plain of Virginia: A Case Study from the Chickahominy Drainage - Joseph Schuldenrein and Dennis Blanton.....75
Soil Moisture Environments of Pre-Columbian Agricultural Terraces and Settlement, Rio Gavilan, Chihuahua, Mexico - Laurance C. Herold and Reuben F. Miller.....97
Soils of Caracol, Belize and Their Significance to Agriculture and Land Use - C. L. Coultas.....103
Pedo-Archaeology of the Mammoth Meadow Fan/Terrace Workshop Site in Southwestern Montana - Marvin T. Beatty, Mort D. Turner, Joanne C. Turner, and Robson Bonnichsen.....111
Considerations about Fragipans of the Eastern United States - Antonio V. Segovia.....121
Nahanada Site Pedology and the Archaeological Record Morphology - Kathleen E. Callum .....125
A Conceptual Methodology for Studying the Geoarchaeology of Fluvial Systems - Robin L Denson.....139
Application of the Newly Developed OCR Dating Procedure in Pedo-Archaeological Studies - Douglas S. Frink.....149
Keywords: Excavations, Archaeology
Albert C. Goodyear and Glen T. Hanson
This multi-article volume was edited by Albert C. Goodyear, III, and Glen T. Hanson.
List of Contributors.....xiii
List of Figures.....xv
List of Tables.....xix
South Carolina Human Remains as an Archaeological Resource: An Update - Ted A. Rathbun.....1
The Earliest South Carolinians - Albert C. Goodyear, III, James L. Michie, and Tommy Charles.....19
Pattern and Process in the Middle Archaic Period of South Carolina - Dennis B. Blanton and Kenneth E. Sassaman.....53
An Archaeological Overview of the South Carolina Woodland Period: It's the Same Old Riddle - Michael B. Trinkley.....73
Sea Level Change, Estuarine Development and Temporal Variability in Woodland Period Subsistence-Settlement Patterning on the Lower Coastal Plain of South Carolina - Mark J. Brooks, Peter A. Stone, Donald J. Colquhoun, and Janice G. Brown.....91
The Mississippian in South Carolina - David G. Anderson.....101
Cofitachequi: Ethnohistorical and Archaeological Evidence - Chester B. DePratter.....133
From Archaeology to Interpretation at Charles Towne - Stanley South.....157
English-Spanish Conflict in 17th Century Carolina: A Theoretical Perspective - Michael Hartley.....169
Colonoware Ceramics: The Evidence from Vaughan and Curriboo Plantations - Patrick H. Garrow and Thomas R. Wheaton.....175
Lowcountry Plantations, the Catawba Nation, and River Burnished Pottery - Leland G. Ferguson.....185
An Examination of Historic Ceramic Seriation: A Case Study from the Savannah River Region of South Carolina - Richard D. Brooks and Glen T. Hanson.....193
Approaches to Archaeological Investigation of Charleston, South Carolina - Martha A. Zierden and Jeanne A. Calhoun.....207
Settlement Function and Archaeological Patterning in a Historic Urban Context: The Woodrow Wilson House in Columbia, South Carolina - Kenneth E. Lewis .....225
The Law and the Amateur in Resource Management - Alan Albright.....253
Keywords: Excavations, Forensic pathology, Archaic Period, Woodland Period, Mississippian Period, Charles Towne, Charleston, Spanish, Ceramics, Catawba Nation, Plantations, Savannah River, South Carolina, Archaeology
Stephen Howard Savage
Traditional research into the Late Archaic period in the Southeastern United States has focused on matters related to subsistence and procurement, carried out under such paradigms as Cultural Ecology, Optimal Foraging Theory, and settlement/subsistence studies. The Landscape Archaeology approach is able to unify a number of these traditionally separate avenues of research into a holistic approach, while incorporating recent revisionist models such as Social Territories, Boundary/Center studies, and the dialectic between the physical/cultural landscape and individual perceptions of it. When the Landscape Archaeology approach is operationalized through Geographic Information Systems methodology, a truly powerful theory and method may be applied to the study of past cultural systems. Here, that combination is used to explore the existence of Late Archaic maximum band social territories and minimum band subsistence territories (Habitual Use Areas) in the Savannah River Valley of Georgia and South Carolina.
Keywords: Excavations, GIS, Geographic Information Systems, Landscapes, Late Archaic Period, Savannah River Valley, Georgia, South Carolina, Archaeology
Stanley South, Russell K. Skowronek, and Richard E. Johnson
This volume contains Parts I and 2 of a three-part presentation of the artifacts relating to the sixteenth century Spanish occupation of the colonial capital of La Florida at Santa Elena, located on Parris Island, South Carolina from 1566 to 1587. Part 1, by Stanley South, with contributions by Eugene Lyon, Richard Polhemus, William Radisch and Carl Steen, comprises the Spanish non-ceramic artifacts. Part 2, by Russell Skowronek, Richard Johnson and Stanley South, examines the Spanish imported ceramics. Part 3, incomplete at this writing, by Chester Depratter, deals with the Spanish-contemporary Indian pottery. This third part will be published as a separate volume at a later date. The entire artifact inventory of the artifacts from Santa Elena is presented in this three-part volume, being those recovered from a number of expeditions to the site between 1979 and 1985. For comparative use the appendices contain the tabulated artifact inventory resulting from these expeditions. Synthesizing tables from these data are presented in the text. This information should prove useful to students of sixteenth century Spanish colonial history, particularly historical archaeologists involved in excavating sites of this period wherever they may be.
Keywords: Excavations, Parris Island, U.S. Marine Corps, Spanish, Santa Elena, La Florida, Pottery, Ceramics, South Carolina, Archaeology
Modeling Subsistence Change in the Late Prehistoric Period in the Interior Lower Coastal Plain of South Carolina
Mark J. Brooks, Veletta Canouts, Keith M. Derting, Helen W. Haskell, William H. Marquart, and JoLee A. Pearson
Recent research on Middle-Late Woodland and Mississippian subsistence-settlement change has modified substantially the traditional models of late fall, coastal to interior transhumance patterns along the southeastern Atlantic Coast. The archeological, ethnohistorical, and environmental data suggest that the interior Lower Coastal Plain of South Carolina was exploited on a year-round basis during the late prehistoric period. These data and those recovered from two archeological sites, which were investigated by the Institute of Archeology and Anthropology for the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers' Cooper River Rediversion Project, indicate differences in the subsistence strategies between the Middle-Late Woodland and Mississippian populations, however. The Middle-Late Woodland settlement pattern appears to reflect generalized exploitation of riverine and interriverine resources, whereas the Mississippian exploitation strategy apparently focuses on the intensive exploitation of a relatively narrow range of specific, high density, riverine resources. A series of interrelated hypotheses, deduced from economic ecological theory, characterizes the expected nature of these differences. The hypotheses are tested using paleoecological data and deriving archeological measures of functional variability for the artifact assemblages recovered from sites 38BK235 and 3BBK236 located in the riverine zone. The results support intensive exploitation of the interior riverine zone in the summer and early fall by both Middle-Late Woodland and Mississippian groups, with the Mississippian occupation having more and better defined activity areas and showing a greater range of diversity and functional specificity in the artifact assemblage.
Keywords: Excavations, Woodland Period, Mississippian Period, Coastal Plain, South Carolina, Archaeology
Limerick - Old and in the Way: Archaeological Investigations at Limerick Plantation, Berkeley County, South Carolina
William B. Lees
Keywords: Excavations, Limerick Plantation, Plantation life, Agriculture, Berkeley County, South Carolina, Archaeology
Albert C. Goodyear, John H. House, and Neal W. Ackerly
Keywords: Excavations, Indians, Laurens County, Anderson County, Peidmont, South Carolina, Archaeology
John H. House and Ronald W. Wogaman
Windy Ridge, 38FAl18, is a prehistoric site located on a ridge top in the inter-riverine zone between the Catawba-Wateree and Broad rivers in Fairfield County in the Piedmont portion of South Carolina. In May and June, 1977, archeological excavations were conducted at Windy Ridge by John H. House and Ronald W. Wogaman of the Institute of Archeology and Anthropology, University of South Carolina, Columbia. These excavations were funded by the (then South Carolina Highway Department) South Carolina Department of Highways and Public Transportation for the purpose of mitigating the loss of archeological resources due to construction of Interstate 77.
It has been requested that Windy Ridge and thousands of similar lithic artifact scatters on upland land surfaces throughout the southern Piedmont represent hunting camps that were occupied for brief periods, perhaps seasonally, throughout the Archaic. The archeological research at Windy Ridge was designed to examine this hypothesis in the case of a single site. Two alternative hypotheses of the overall function of such a site in prehistoric settlement systems and two hypotheses of the potential biotic resources extracted from the environment at such a site were formulated and a set of archeological test implications were outlined for each hypothesis. The sampling strategy and excavation techniques together with the analytical methods employed in the laboratory were designed to fulfill the data requirements of these hypotheses.
Artifacts from diverse cultural periods spanning 8000 years of prehistory were found throughout the sandy loam upper soil horizons at Windy Ridge. Though no stratigraphic separation of components was present, it was possible, analytically, to make some minimal segregations of the assemblage into chronologically and functionally meaningful units. It was inferred that throughout most of prehistory the aboriginal utilization of Windy Ridge consisted of many brief episodes of occupation, each involving the manufacture and/or use of a relatively narrow range of stone tools. The assemblage appears to be dominated by the outputs of manufacture of local raw materials and the use of hafted bifacial cutting tools. The spatial structure of the site suggests that quantitatively and spatially small units of cultural deposition characterized its formation during most prehistoric periods. The Middle Archaic component at Windy Ridge, however, seems to represent rather large units of synchronic deposition such as might be expected if prolonged or frequently recurrent use of permanent facilities had occurred during this interval at Windy Ridge.
On the whole, the data tend to support the hypothesis that Windy Ridge represents a series of brief episodes of occupation involving specialized extractive activities, perhaps hunting and butchering of white-tailed deer. This inference is far from conclusive, and the data suggest significant technological, functional and organizational differences among prehistoric components at Windy Ridge.
Keywords: Excavations, Indians, Windy Ridge, Piedmont, South Carolina, Archaeology
Kenneth E. Lewis
An examination of the site of the British colonial settlement of Camden, a center of social, economic, and political activity on the eighteenth century backcountry frontier of South Carolina, permitted the observation of large-scale intrasite patterning through the use of stratified unaligned random sampling of the subsurface remains there. Although disturbed by long-term agricultural activity, patterning in the distribution of archeological materials was discernible. An examination of this patterning reveals not only the spatial and temporal limits of the settlement, but also suggests that Camden shared significant functional similarities with frontier centers in general. In contrast to urban centers with comparable social, economic, and political roles in contemporary Britain, Camden exhibited a markedly more dispersed settlement pattern, as well as a smaller population, larger land use units, an apparently greater proportion of activities of a nondomestic (e.g., commercial, industrial) as opposed to a domestic (i.e., residential) nature, and a relatively large proportion of high status residents. These functional characteristics reflect Camden's role as a frontier town, a class of settlement that serves as a locus of those activities associated with the collection and redistribution of goods and commodities passing into and out of the area of colonization. As a frontier settlement, Camden was situated close to remaining aboriginal groups in the area; and as a consequence, participated in extensive direct trade with them. The form of the settlement appears to have remained, in general, relatively unchanged until its abandonment at the beginning of the nineteenth century. Even the brief Revolutionary War period military occupation of the town resulted in few changes apart from the addition of fortification features.
Keywords: Excavations, Camden, South Carolina, Archaeology